Fruitful Fingering Part 2

This is the second article in my series for Piano Professional Magazine, published by EPTA (European Piano Teachers Association): a teacher’s publication, for which I write the technique feature. You can read the first article, here, and in Part 2, I look at different methods of applying certain fingerings, offering various options  for students.

Teachers all know the importance well-placed fingering has in the context of learning a new piece, and this fact remains true irrespective of a student’s level or ability. My previous article examined several expected fingering techniques, and in this article I will endeavour to venture a little off-piste, with a few different ideas around this vast subject. Our goal, as teachers, must be to equip our students so that they can eventually think for themselves, writing their own fingering on every score.

Firstly, I return to reiterate perhaps the most vital concept when learning to finger fruitfully, and that is the assimilation of scales, arpeggios and broken chords; if students have thoroughly learnt these patterns, then adding fingering to most piano pieces will feel simple and natural. This point cannot be stressed enough, as without these symmetrical note patterns and their fairly rigid fingerings, pupils simply won’t be able to grasp the basics of piano playing. If your student hasn’t been taking exams, it might be prudent to suggest the acquisition of a scale manual – both the ABRSM and Trinity College London publish separate volumes with all keys, scale permutations, and fingerings.

Knowing your fingering is paramount, and as a general rule, once a fingering has been chosen, written into the score and played through, it’s highly advisable not to change it. This cardinal rule certainly rings true for less experienced players. Our brains seem hard-wired to play patterns or sequences, but once these patterns are even slightly distorted, it causes us much grief and cancelling them altogether will feel very unnatural.

Practice tends to make ‘permanent’ as many teachers will attest, so aim for students to be quite sure of their finger selections before they leave the lesson. Try going through a piece slowly with them, hands separately, checking that they are actually using the fingering which has been added to the score. This will be key to successful absorption of each hand’s fingering, and will stop the inevitable corrections which will occur at the following lesson if this stage in the learning process has been side-stepped.

After advising our students to religiously stick to one fingering for their pieces (especially for any fiddly figurations), it can be extremely liberating to throw out this rule when returning to study a piece for the second or third time. This may only apply to more advanced pupils. Occasionally students will play a piece, leave it for a while, only to return at a later date to find that the fingering which once fitted like a glove, now feels less than ideal. In this case it’s time to revise the original fingering and search for something more convenient. Whilst it may appear akin to climbing Everest, a more advanced student can reconfigure passages with relative ease, especially when they are able to work out the new fingering for themselves.

Smaller hands inevitably struggle with certain elements, namely wide intervals and large chords, which can be challenging, particularly when playing extended passagework. Fingering must be very carefully applied when taking this fact into consideration. Sometimes the only option is to ‘rearrange’ passages, leaving out notes which don’t disturb the flow or the construction of a piece. Adding a spread chord where the original is too large, or rewriting chords in some cases, may provide a simple solution. Dividing passages between the hands is another beneficial tactic. It may appear as though cheating, but it can be a workable option if the sound and character of a piece remains largely unaffected.

Octaves are renowned for causing smaller hands grief, but with regular flexibility exercises and a relaxed wrist and arm, most students can handle them. There is much debate over the fingering of octave passage work. Some schools of thought are insistent on using the thumb and fifth finger for all such passages, whereas, others believe the thumb combined with a fourth or fifth finger provides a better option. Certainly when playing fast chromatic passages, the fourth is a welcome addition (and if a student has a large hand, a third finger may also be used):

This passage from Study No. 49 of Czerny’s Art of Finger Dexterity Op. 740 illustrates how the fourth finger, if implemented scrupulously and only with a relaxed or loose arm and wrist, can be an excellent method of moving quickly around the keyboard.

Sliding from two black keys when playing octaves, can be a helpful way to join notes smoothly (I’ve written about ‘finger sliding’ in more detail in my previous article: Fruitful Fingering Part 1). It should also be remembered that using the thumb on black keys is now regarded as acceptable, whereas previously, this practice was sometimes considered ‘unsuitable’ fingering.

How the fingers physically play notes is another often forgotten factor when discussing fingering. I work with students until they can easily use their fingertips when playing fast figurations or scalic passage work. The tips are best incorporated via a flexible wrist and a ‘hooked’ finger position:

This fosters firmer finger and rhythmic control. However, flatter fingers can work well too, for chords, especially those on black notes, and they are generally more conducive to achieving a completely different timbre. Some impressionistic repertoire might be best played with this approach.

Two notes, one finger! An effective tactic for large chords, such as the following, which employs a spread thumb:

Chopin Prelude (Op. 28 No. 7 in A major), is easier to grasp when using the thumb over the C sharp and A sharp:

This also works for white notes:

And, for certain repertoire, playing ‘in the crack’ might be a practical alternative:

Two fingers playing the same note can have a real impact on certain passages, carrying more weight and drama, and the thumb is also able to support the other fingers creating a deep, rich sound.

The thumb might also be extended slightly when playing back notes, therefore avoiding mishaps involving slipping off or missing notes (example below, to the left):

Fingers have their own character and personality, and, again, this is a very personal element when considering how fingering might be applied to a passage. As a general rule, the thumb and possibly the third finger appear stronger than the others, perhaps due to their positioning on the hand. We aim to encourage students to ‘strengthen’ their fingers, but realistically everyone’s hand is different, and this applies to finger strength as well. I ask students to examine their fingers, observing how they work at the keyboard, deciphering which they feel is the strongest or most powerful. Once then have done this, they are in a better position to work at instigating a more secure technique; developing power in the fourth and fifth fingers especially. However, this must be done with great care, using flexibility in the wrist, arm and hand so as not to cause tension issues.

Finger pedalling is a topic which must be mentioned here. It’s not pedalling as we know it, but it does create a similar effect, as if depressing the sustaining (or right) pedal. The technique of finger pedalling is essentially the over-holding of notes i.e. holding down the keys whilst continuing to play other notes over the top (or underneath). This was a popular technique used for the harpsichord and other early keyboard instruments before the pedal was invented, and as a result it is often synonymous with Baroque music. Before the sustaining pedal (which was implemented from approximately W.A. Mozart’s time onwards), holding down the keys was the only way of sustaining the sound. The following is a well-known example:

Here, the two lower notes in J. S. Bach’s Prelude in C major (No 1 from the Forty-Eight Preludes and Fugues Book 1), are held, as the top line (played by the right hand) plays the melodic material. This example has been ‘written in’, but it’s often the case that a player must use their own artistic judgement when employing this technique.

Fingering can have quite an impact on tonal balance. A suitable fingering will enhance chordal balance, and will allow melody lines to come to the forefront of the texture. Guided practice is required when voicing any chord; whilst firm fourth and fifth fingers are generally a prerequisite for melodic playing in the right hand, much suppleness in the wrist and hand will be necessary behind this firmness, supported by the Bridge position or the knuckles. Where possible, it can be practical to introduce the thumb for melodic material, even if it involves much movement around the keyboard.

Finally, if we can guide students to think about fingering before the learning process begins, they will become aware of the fundamental impact this can have on their learning capacity.

You can read the original article, here:

Fruitful Fingering Part 2

My publications:

For much more information about how to practice piano repertoire, take a look at my piano course, Play it again: PIANO (published by Schott Music). Covering a huge array of styles and genres, the course features a large collection of progressive, graded piano repertoire from approximately Grade 1 to advanced diploma level, with copious practice tips for every piece. A convenient and beneficial course for students of any age, with or without a teacher, and it can also be used alongside piano examination syllabuses too.

You can find out more about my other piano publications and compositions here.





Fingering: Part 1

Today’s weekend post focuses on fingering; a topic about which I often write for the reason that I feel it’s particularly important for students of all levels. This article is the first in a two-part series written for the September 2018 edition of Piano Professional, published by EPTA (European Piano Teachers Association), for whom I regularly write a technique feature.

Fruitful Fingering Part 1

Fingering comes in all different guises and there is certainly no ‘one-size-fits-all-approach’; much can depend on the size, shape and disposition of the hand. However, there are certain fundamentals which might be applied to most hands, and with that in mind, some of following suggested techniques will hopefully prove advantageous for all kinds of repertoire. This is the first of two articles examining various fingering strategies and ideas which may be useful for your students.

If you use Urtext editions, fingering will have generally been written in to the score by an editor or in some cases, the composer, but irrespective of who has added the fingering, it’s always possible to change it and replace with your own. As a teacher, I often spend a significant amount of time during lessons either adding or changing fingering, and sometimes fingering may have been drafted in to the score at the very start of the learning process only to be changed after a week or two, if a more suitable one miraculously comes to light.

A crucial factor, when educating our students about the benefits of idiomatic fingering, is the practice and absorption of scales, arpeggios and broken chords. Students and teachers frequently bemoan their existence in exams, but they do serve a myriad of purposes. I have written extensively about the importance of scales as technical exercises, but another, often overlooked, factor is that by assimilating all the scale and arpeggio technical work properly, students learn ideal fingerings for much passage work.

Baroque and Classical repertoire is routinely constructed from standard scale patterns, and therefore it’s both pragmatic and practical to base fingerings for such passages on those learnt from scales. The following is a good example; hailing from the first movement of Beethoven’s Sonata in C minor Op. 10 No. 1, the scale passage in the right hand can be clearly identified as that of E flat major (starting on the third of the scale), and if the same fingerings are employed as in the scale, the passage is that much easier to grasp:

Contrary motion scales prove a useful tool for learning symmetrical playing. If the thumbs or same fingers (in either hand) can play together when moving in the opposite direction, coordination feels comfortable. This won’t always be possible, but when our students are starting to play scales, aim to begin with simpler objectives.

Symmetry is also at work when learning arpeggio patterns. Fingering must be well-defined in arpeggios; the left hand, particularly, relies on the careful use of the third or fourth finger:

In this example, it might seem taxing to use the fourth finger on the E (the second note in the C major arpeggio), but using the third finger here, as suggested in some exam manuals, renders an awkward position for the hand. Eventually, the fourth becomes accustomed to the second note, and this helps with chordal playing too. However, when playing a major third at the start of an arpeggio, such as in D major, the third finger would be ideal:

Encouraging students to learn these patterns accurately from the start is a good plan, as it becomes tricky to change them at a later date. The brain seems hard-wired to play the first fingering pattern it learns – changing always feels alien.

Aim to play in position as much as possible. This involves limiting turning the hand, or changing hand positions. Hand turns can lead to uneven playing, especially when a melodic line is involved. Bumpy or jerky playing can happen when there are too many thumbs on the scene. If students can be coaxed into using their fourth and fifth fingers as frequently as the inner part of their hand i.e. the thumb, second and third fingers, not only will the hand be more balanced whilst playing passage work, but it will also feel more natural, with considerably less movement. In order to do this, the outer fingers will require sufficient practice, so that they are able to cope with the demands of playing crisp passage work. With this in mind, it might be pertinent to use a few daily exercises, but only with the guidance of a teacher, as it’s easy to ‘lock-up’ or become tense without cultivating flexibility in the hand and wrist when working at developing finger strength.

Know your thumbs! Thumbs can be pivotal for secure playing; knowing where they occur in both hands, and where they don’t need to occur, will create confidence. Once students are aware of thumb placement, the other fingers tend to fall in to place. Although thumbs provide stability when playing, as they tend to ‘anchor’ passage work, the challenge is to listen optimally so they do not dominate; they must ideally be tonally equal to all the other fingers, therefore we must strive to find ways to camouflage thumb ‘accents’ which can happen due to thumb physiology.

When writing fingering in the score, it can be enough to pen where thumbs arise, as opposed to marking every finger, but I still tend to write in much more fingering than this for my students. If possible, try to ensure that hands work in tandem; occasionally what seems like the best fingering in the right hand might become unworkable when both hands play together.

Repeated patterns or sequences can be an excellent way to absorb fingering quickly. Sequences of notes or note patterns may lend themselves to replica or repeated fingering i.e. the same patterns over and over again. Repetition is key here, and the ‘blocking-out’ technique can prove a suitable method of learning i.e. playing note patterns all together in one go, enabling pupils to find the notes and their corresponding fingerings at once. This can be seen in the following example, which shows two bars from the first movement of Beethoven’s Sonata in C minor Op. 10 No. 1. The first example illustrates how the Alberti Bass pattern in the left hand appears in the score, and the second, how it might be practised (keeping the same fingering throughout):

Further to the second example, for even swifter learning, the entire bar could be played as one or two chords (where possible).

Repeated notes are a different fingering issue altogether. There are often two schools of thought; some believe it’s better to change fingers on every note during a repeated note passage, whilst others find using the same finger achieves a more pleasing result. I encourage students to try both methods, and decide for themselves. Let’s examine the following passage, which is the opening of Turina’s Fiesta Op. 52 No. 7, right hand:

Both fingerings are acceptable. By using the same finger, or the top fingering in the example, you may find that students are able to create a smoother, more even repeated note passage. For clarity and control, advocate keeping the second finger close to the keys and employ a gentle finger tapping movement.

Finger substitution is a preferred method of playing legato. It’s too easy to rely on the sustaining pedal to ‘join’ note passages. If a pianist can continually substitute or change fingers on one and the same note, fluent, smooth playing should be the happy result. Finger substitution entails holding a key down with one finger whilst quickly swapping to another finger or thumb, ensuring the same note is held for the entire procedure. This technique enables pianists to form an unbroken musical line whilst playing other note figurations or patterns underneath (or above).

Finger sliding utilizes the same finger to literally ‘slide’ from note to note. I call this the ‘illusion of legato’ and it may also be a useful technique for larger intervals too; notes don’t actually need to be next to each other to benefit from the sliding approach.

Sliding requires a very smooth manoeuvre, where the second note of any ‘slide’ must not only match the sound to that of the dying first note, but should also aim to avoid gaps in the sound between notes. Astute listening is paramount.  Students might like to work at the following exercise. After practising this exercise using the thumb, play it with the second finger, and then third finger:

Fingering is of utmost importance when learning to play smoothly, evenly and proficiently. It’s for this reason that we must offer our students a thorough grounding, so that they are eventually able to annotate scores for themselves.

Click on the link below to read the original article:

Fruitful Fingering Part 1

My publications:

For much more information about how to practice piano repertoire, take a look at my piano course, Play it again: PIANO (published by Schott Music). Covering a huge array of styles and genres, the course features a large collection of progressive, graded piano repertoire from approximately Grade 1 to advanced diploma level, with copious practice tips for every piece. A convenient and beneficial course for students of any age, with or without a teacher, and it can also be used alongside piano examination syllabuses too.

You can find out more about my other piano publications and compositions here.


Practising without the Piano

My most recent article for the Piano Professional Magazine (a publication for piano teachers, published three times a year by EPTA or the European Piano Teachers Association), focuses on working away from the instrument and using the mind to aid learning in a variety of different ways. You can read the original article by clicking on the link at the end. I’ve also added a downloadable practice PDF sheet, 10 Tips for Working without the Piano, which can be printed out for students (at the end of this article). I hope you find it of interest.

Back CameraPractising without an instrument. Just how helpful can this be? To some it might appear a rather curious concept, but as teachers, we know it’s a universally popular practice tool, and for countless pianists, a very effective method of learning.

The masters have routinely praised this form of practice; Polish pianist Artur Rubenstein, famously declared he never practised at the keyboard for more than three hours per day, and according to his memoirs, used much time learning and thinking about the music away from the instrument. French pianist Walter Gieseking could apparently learn a piece from scratch without even touching the piano, and stressed the importance of ‘brainwork’ and ‘intense training of the ear’ in Piano Technique (the publication he wrote in conjunction with his teacher, Karl Leimer). For the majority of pianists, teachers, and students, working away from the piano, even in small but regular bursts, can be a fruitful way to test knowledge, memory, to consolidate learning, and it can even be used to sort out various technical issues too.

Musical Analysis

There are a plethora of ways to benefit from thinking about your playing without actually touching the instrument, but one of the most helpful, certainly at the start of the learning process, is undoubtedly musical analysis. When we start to learn a piece, we generally peruse the score, searching for all the usual signposts; structure, key changes, tempo changes, texture, stylistic traits and so on. We analyse and scrutinise. Initially, this is our first point of contact.

Analysis can prove beneficial on so many levels, but at its most basic level, begin by observing everything on the page (it can help to write all observations down too). Make sure nothing escapes your attention, and allow the mind to slowly but deliberately take note of the notes and patterns formed on the page. Observing provides copious information which will slowly sink into the mind, and eventually, the subconscious, paving the way for two other crucial mental modes of practising away from the keyboard; memory and visualisation.

When dissecting your score, start by observing the form (fugue, sonata form etc.) and its structure. It can be helpful to mark-up various sections and where they change, noticing how they change. If it has an ABA form, identify the different segments and new material. In a sense, mapping the piece, linking sections and noting where and how they differ. Once key signature changes are digested, watch for tempo variations and texture changes. It’s vital to monitor how themes develop and metamorphose throughout a work. How does the phrasing expand or change? Or does it? These simple observations can continue ad infinitum, and the more detailed, the more thoroughly a work will be mentally ingrained, even before ‘practice’ commences.

Marking fingering is another form of assimilation; it’s easy to do this without the keyboard and by focusing carefully on where fingers will be placed, it feels that much simpler when they eventually touch the instrument. Articulation needs equal scrutiny, as do all musical markings, pedal indications (if there are any), and dynamic marks. These aid the mental learning process. Analysis can take many forms, but by focusing on the musical map, when it comes to working at the keyboard, you will be well prepared.


As learning commences at the instrument, another important facet comes into play; memorisation. Memorisation and practising away from the piano are synonymous and completely intertwined. Whether we intend to memorise our piece or not, using this method can be extremely valuable, particularly during sessions away from the piano. Many feel it’s helpful to separate practising or ‘learning the notes’ from memory work, and to a certain extent this is true, but as with other aspects, deeper immersion in the music will add speed to the learning process, and generally proffer better results.

Here are a few ideas to assist practice away from the piano:


It can help to practice mindfulness before beginning any kind of mental (or physical) piano practice. We often forget that impatience, irritation and stress can be the biggest negative factors in practising, particularly when working alone. It’s too easy to exist only in our head in this respect, but by reminding ourselves to keep a positive, relaxed and crucially, a happy mind-set before practice commences, success will be that much quicker.


Good posture and relaxed breathing should be the first element in all practice sessions, whether at the instrument or away from it. Sit on a chair (or piano stool if you’re at the keyboard) with your shoulders down (tension here can occur even away from the instrument!), breathing slowly and deliberately, fixating on the task in hand in a positive way. Remember, you are looking forward to memorising your piece and will do so with ease. Aim to repeat slow breathing at various intervals in practice sessions (I like to get up and walk around too).

Think about how the piece makes you feel; it’s character, mood and atmosphere. Write down a few choice descriptions or words which sum up the work, and how it reveals itself to you. Some find it useful to listen to recordings at this point, but this should be done with caution, as there is a danger of ‘learning’ another performer’s interpretation instead of cultivating your own.

Four types of memorisation dominate; auditory or aural (how the music sounds), visual (how it looks on the page), kinesthetic or muscular (the physical sensation of playing), and intellectual memory (the analytical process). Aural and visual memorisation play a vital role in working away from the keyboard, as does the intellectual side of memorisation. It’s possible to incorporate all three during the thinking process.

Take the score and focus on a line at a time (or bar by bar if you prefer really sectionalising), noting what happens in each hand, learn the fingering, shapes and patterns, leaps, chords etc., so you can play through each line in your mind, first by looking or reading the score, then eventually from memory. Also be aware of the movements required by each hand to truly master passagework; finger movement, wrist movement (either rotational or lateral), arm movement, power, arm-weight, and so on. These will act as hooks or sign posts, and simplify the process of ‘mastering’ the piece. Once at the piano, you will already know how each line of music will ‘sound’, and your fingers will more or less instinctively fall into place.

Now sing the musical line in each hand (even the accompaniment material) in the first line of the piece. This will aid memory, sense of structure and awareness of musical patterns, shapes and key too. Try it at slow speeds as well as up to tempo. Now imagine playing the line and singing it at the same time. This might need a few attempts! You could also sing the top line (right hand), whilst playing an imaginary bottom line (left hand), and then vice versa. Work through every line of the piece in this fashion, even repeated material. When feeling confident, take the score away, and test your memory (do this frequently).

As you work away from the keyboard, find some manuscript paper and write out your score, line by line. Whilst time-consuming, it’s amazing just how much information can be ingested this way. It really strengthens knowledge and clarifies exactly what happens in either hand at any given time.

Another important element in mental work, is the necessary emphasis of the left hand. This cannot be underestimated. If you can play the left hand line through in your head, it can easily be transposed to the piano. Learn it via methods already suggested, listening to how it sounds mentally as well. Auditory memory is a powerful practice tool, and complete awareness of the left hand is a prerequisite in memorising.

After you have worked through a composition employing these simple processes, the piece will form a lasting imprint in your mind, and this will solidify interpretation. Some find working backwards can help; not literally playing the music backwards, but starting with the coda, running the left hand then the right hand, phrase by phrase, assimilating in chunks. I find this method particularly beneficial, for some reason it seems to really speed up the entire procedure.

Once thoroughly digested, begin to test your memory during practice sessions. Remembering every detail at this stage may prove challenging, but by repeatedly returning to the same phrases and passages over a period of time, the thought responses become stronger and clearer. It can be occasionally useful to record yourself playing a piece, or short section of a piece, and then listen to the playback carefully, followed by a replay of it in your mind, without the sound or score.


The final ‘phase’ of security when practising away from the instrument comes from visualisation technique. Some find this method more valuable than others, but it can become a core part of a practice session, and can be done anywhere at any time. Visualisation can be a two-pronged approach. Firstly, hearing the music in the mind, and secondly, having a clear image of playing it too.

One of the most powerful strategies when thinking about a piece, particularly one which has been routinely practised, is to be able to play it through in your head, away from the score and the instrument. The best way to do this is to find a quiet corner, far from distractions, sit still, and keep eyes firmly closed. It’s necessary to achieve complete focus, because ‘hearing’ a piece from beginning to end takes a tremendous amount of discipline and concentration. The considerable effort and absorption required can come as quite a shock, but once accustomed to the relevant mind-set needed, a calmness and stillness is acquired, and it becomes possible to ‘think’ through the music accurately.

Start by hearing a page at a time, and build up slowly. Set a suitable tempo and resist the urge to move your fingers, as this works best when the music flows through your thoughts without adherence to technical demands or issues. Never stray from your ideal speed, and note any ‘difficult’ passages which can’t be easily recalled; you may want to revisit these later, separately (writing sections down, or writing them out on manuscript paper can further assist here). Once you have done this successfully and fluently, play it through again, but this time at half speed.

An invaluable part of the visualisation process is a powerful immersion into the music. Once free of having to actually play a piece, it’s possible to decide how to interpret, colour, and enrich with efficiency and ease. The act of thinking through any piano work will definitely change original perceptions of interpretation and it will also encourage far greater confidence.

Now visualise playing the piece, i.e. watch yourself play it at the keyboard as an image in your mind. As the music runs through your thoughts, observe your fingers, fingerings, movements, and everything your body must do in order to achieve a positive outcome and therefore exact account. Some like to envisage all details, imagining every finger playing in the centre of every key, whilst others prefer to ‘see’ a slightly less amplified or meticulous picture, merely viewing the whole persona at the piano as the music streams through the mind. The imagery involved with ‘surveying’ a performance can have a dramatically positive effect on our minds, keeping a logical, optimistic projection which will provide an affirmative outcome.

Whether your preference is to hear a work, or observe it being performed, it is crucial to ‘think’ rigorously and scrupulously, without ever losing concentration. It’s probably true to assume if you can’t ‘hear’ a piece through to the end, you don’t yet know it well enough. Visualisation boosts and inspires a performance, enabling the performer to play securely and serenely from the heart; a work played from the heart will never be forgotten, and will lead to an honest, reliable interpretation.

Students and pupils can benefit profoundly from working at pieces in this way, whether they intend them to be played from memory or not, and if we can encourage these thought processes in their practice sessions, who knows what they might achieve.

Download my practice PDF here: 10 Tips for Practising without the Piano

Original article: Practising without the Piano

My publications:

For much more information about how to practice piano repertoire, take a look at my piano course, Play it again: PIANO (published by Schott Music). Covering a huge array of styles and genres, the course features a large collection of progressive, graded piano repertoire from approximately Grade 1 to advanced diploma level, with copious practice tips for every piece. A convenient and beneficial course for students of any age, with or without a teacher, and it can also be used alongside piano examination syllabuses too.

You can find out more about my other piano publications and compositions here.