The Melodrama or Recitation is a musical form that I love hearing and playing. Melodramas are not a popular or well-known genre in classical music yet many significant composers have written them over the years, and therefore perhaps they deserve a little more attention.

A melodrama is a narrated poem or story accompanied by music. Music and words are a great combination. There are many different forms of accompaniment but the preferred mediums are mainly orchestral or piano music. Famous examples include Peter and the Wolf (Prokofiev) and Young Person’s Guide to the Orchestra (Britten), but I love the settings with piano accompaniment.

Early examples of the Melodrama include short songs, like, for example, those by Schubert, but the genre came into its own in the 19th century or Romantic era. Melodramas were especially popular amongst the Victorians, many of whom had parlour pianos and would enjoy including this genre at their own house soirees.

Liszt wrote five examples; there are five surviving recitations but it is thought that he wrote more as he especially liked this form.  They have been conceived in three languages: three German, a Hungarian and a Russian.   My favourite, Der Traurige Mönch (1860) or The Mournful Monk, is a dour fateful ghost story (the poem was written by Nicolaus Lenau). Liszt’s dramatic yet sparse accompaniment brings the story to life, the eerie harmonies are a fine example of the composer’s early interest in adventurous harmony, something he explored more fully in his late compositions. Other Liszt recitations include; Lenore, Helge’s Loyalty, The Dead Poet’s Love and The Blind Man. The tales cover a wide range of human emotion and are beautifully highlighted by Liszt’s expressive piano parts.

The pinnacle of melodrama writing came in 1897 when Richard Strauss set Lord Tennyson’s evocative poem Enoch Arden to piano music. The work was written for the actor Ernst von Possart whilst Strauss was busy writing Don Quixote. Possart and Strauss performed the piece many times using a German translation. It was very well received by audiences at the time enhancing the composer’s reputation considerably and Strauss was inspired to write a further melodrama, The Castle by the Sea (Das Schloss am Meere) the following year.

Enoch Arden has been described as incidental music: Strauss employs leitmotifs or themes to identify each character; the two parts to the 60 minute piece (it can last much longer depending on the narrator!) are introduced by a prelude and concluded with a postlude. There are long passages where the piano is silent but, although the music is somewhat sparse, what there is to play is sublime; rich in colour, sonority and texture. It is a joy to perform and is incredibly expressive.

Enoch Arden has been performed and recorded frequently over the years. Narrators of note include Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau, Jon Vickers and Michael York and pianists of note include Glenn Gould, Emanuel Ax and Marc-Andre Hamelin. I performed it several times with the music critic John Amis both here in the UK and in Canada at the International Liszt Festival in Hamilton, Ontario.

Other composers who have tackled the Melodrama include Poulenc (who wrote the wonderfully whimsical Barbar the Elephant), Satie, Walton and the British female composer Liza Lehmann. Lehmann (1862 – 1918) was an opera singer turned song composer, who wrote  five recitations. Out of the five, The Happy Prince and The Selfish Giant are the most enduring. Lehmann’s unashamedly romantic, expressive piano accompaniments complement Oscar Wilde’s moving tales very effectively.

Whilst Melodramas will never generate the same interest as piano music or songs, they are a beautiful and interesting form. Some may say they are outdated but they would benefit from a mini revival. Therefore, I will finish today by asking this question: are there any festival or concert hall artistic directors out there willing to programme a Melodrama?

A taster from Enoch Arden performed by Michael York and John Bell Young.


Melanie Spanswick has written and published a wide range of courses, anthologies, examination syllabuses, and text books, including Play it again: PIANO (published by Schott Music). This best-selling graded, progressive piano course contains a large selection of repertoire featuring a huge array of styles and genres, with copious practice tips and suggestions for every piece.

For more information, please visit the publications page, here.


8 Comments Add yours

  1. pomprint says:

    My personal favourite is Stravinsky’s ‘A Soldier’s Tale’, but I guess that this does not really lend itself very easily to the Piano as the sonority is based around the military band.

    …unless you know of a piano version, that is!

    1. classicalmel says:

      Hi Steve,
      Sorry but I don’t know of a piano version of A Soldier’s Tale! Its a great piece though.

  2. DEAR MELANIE — Michael York and I thank you very much indeed for your thoughtfulness and seeing fit to include an excerpt of our recording of Enoch Arden on your most informative blog. Please be in touch as there is an interesting project afoot now that may interest you. Best wishes, JOHN BELL YOUNG

    1. Dear John,
      Thank you so much for your kind comments. I enjoyed your performance of Enoch Arden very much and am looking forward to hearing about your future project, Best Wishes,
      Melanie (

  3. cary lewis says:

    where can one find the liza lehmann scores?

    1. Hi, Many are out of print sadly – all the Melodramas for example, but you can find some of Lehmann’s songs in various song albums…..

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