Structuring Your Piano Practice

This week’s piano post has been suggested by you, the reader; ‘structured practice for the more advanced pianist’ has been whirling around my inbox recently. I have written about it several times for beginners, but it does take on a different mantle for those of you who have clearly passed that stage. Piano practice has frequently been cited by pupils as the main reason for wanting to quit, after all it can be boring even when the piece being studied is a favourite. However, without sufficient practice, the piano is a challenging instrument to tackle indeed. Therefore, the conundrum is how to make practice more compelling and possibly less work, or rather involve a shorter practice time as well as making progress. Here are some tips and ideas for those from around Grade 6-8 level and above.

Always warm up. Many don’t believe in this, but it does help free your muscles and make you feel better too; it can provide mental stimulation for your practice session. Many eminent pianists have mentioned the importance of doing this. It doesn’t need to be longer than a few minutes, but it is best to start very slowly building up speed, working your fingers to the full, producing a large sound. Scales are good for this as are Czerny or Hanon studies. Both hands should work equally well during warm ups; avoid a ‘dragging’ left hand.

How many pianists actually do any technical work? If you can work on your technique in the right way (it’s best to be guided here by a good teacher who knows how to teach technique), you will find your pieces much easier to play. When you start doing technical work make sure your shoulders are down with no tension in your upper body, then work on simple studies for a further 5 or 10 minutes, this can really help with weak fingers especially the fourth and fifths. When doing this type of work, watch your hands and fingers and try to avoid the ‘collapsing hand’ syndrome. Knuckles should protrude rather than buckle! There are lots of elements to focus on here; developing strong fingers and crucially a free wrist, agility and speed,  and producing a good sound, so this should stop your mind wandering and not knowing what or how to practice next; this is a really common complaint amongst young or inexperienced pianists and is how boredom sometimes sets in.

After 10/15 minutes, or a lot longer if you have ample practice time, of warm-ups and technical work, you are now ready to work at your pieces. When asked, many pupils have no idea where to start beyond playing the pieces through and perhaps going over sections that have caused concern. How about starting with the left hand? In my opinion it’s possibly more important than the right, because it often contains fast-moving accompaniment and needs to cover a large amount of keyboard. It often provides the key to the harmonic structure and many stylistic features, too.

After working out the fingering, rhythm and notes, try dividing your piece in sections; look for any obvious repeated passage-work or structural signposts as this speed up learning. Practice the left hand in each section until you can play fluently and from memory. Then work at the right in the same way because this will really help when you start playing hands together, and you will know the piece in a much more detailed, thorough way.

If the piece being studied is fairly complicated, then work at very small sections without pedal, as this will just mask errors at this stage, and with the metronome if possible. Even if the piece you are studying isn’t particularly difficult, you will find there are so many benefits from practising in this fashion. Once you can play fluently, using a metronome is always a good idea for a while at least. The more you focus on small passages, the better you will know the work. Work at several pieces concurrently, frequently swapping them around so your mind is constantly challenged and engaged.

Another consideration is the sound being produced; think about the type of sound you want for each piece because then it will be much easier to ‘produce’ it at the keyboard. This is a personal element, but it does go hand in hand with dynamics, expression and phrasing too. Musical concerns need working on at the same time as the technical issues; always be aware of the stylistic traits of composers, their genres or the historical periods from which your piece hails, as this will affect the way you play it.

Working in detail as suggested above could take hours, but it’s easy to put a time frame on it by deciding what you want to achieve when you sit down for each practice session. Be realistic and try to resist the temptation to set lots of goals for every session. One suggestion is to divide a work into four (or perhaps more) sections; work at the last two sections meticulously one day, and the first two the next. If you can train yourself to really think about what you are doing during practice sessions you will achieve so much more in a shorter time frame.

This method eliminates the desire to just play pieces through. You could finish your practice session with some sight-reading; not everyone’s favourite thing, but necessary all the same. If you don’t have any suitable material just get hold of a hymn book or some Bach Chorales; these are great for reading and are tuneful, too. As with all sight-reading practice, start slowly and do not stop.

Finally, remember that concentration is the key factor so the minute your mind starts to wander stop practising and go and do something else. The more you focus, the quicker your practice session will fly by and the more you will achieve. Train your mind to think clearly at all times and enjoy.


Melanie Spanswick has written and published a wide range of courses, anthologies, examination syllabuses, and text books, including Play it again: PIANO (published by Schott Music). This best-selling graded, progressive piano course contains a large selection of repertoire featuring a huge array of styles and genres, with copious practice tips and suggestions for every piece.

For more information, please visit the publications page, here.

28 Comments Add yours

  1. pomprint says:

    An excellent article Mel. I will try out your suggestions. Thanks for this.

    1. Thanks Steve, So pleased you have found it helpful. Hope all is well. 🙂

  2. Efrat says:

    Great article! I’m going to try these suggestions right now:) but first i was hoping you could help me with a problem-I practice every day for 3 hours or more, and after that my back hurts so much that I have to lie down for at least an hour. Any tips?

    1. Hi Efrat, So glad you like the post and have found it useful. Really sorry to hear about your back problems…that can be very debilitating. It’s hard to comment without watching you play, but it could be a posture problem? Or maybe lack of movement when you play? Stiffness? It’s all too easy to sit in an unnatural position when practising. If so, have you tried using a chair instead of a stool? Load of pianists do, look at Radu Lupu. Make sure you take frequent breaks. I used to get up and walk about after about 15/20 minutes of practice as I found this useful for my mind more than anything else. Try some stretching exercises? Pilates/Yoga can help and especially Alexander technique which many musicians swear by. Make sure you don’t feel ‘tight’ when you play as this is a common sign of tension which could be contributing to back problems. Hope this is of some help? Mel 🙂

  3. Thank you so so much!! These tips helped me tremendously. I was hoping you could give me some advice please. I don’t have much time to practice, only about an hour a day so how can I get the most out of my 1 hour?

    1. Hi Cecile, So glad you have found these tips helpful. I hour is plenty of time – just start with quick warm ups and technical work (10/15 mins?), then work at your pieces in short bursts achieving something different everyday. Most important thing is to concentrate and focus properly. It’s easy to spend the hour ‘playing’ rather than working at it. If you do want to play through then allocate 10 minutes at the end of your hour 🙂

      1. I’ll do as you suggested ^^ Thank you very much!

  4. Efrat says:

    Thank you for your reply:) maybe i’m a bit stiff while playing, so i’ll try your advice as soon as i get to the piano. Thanks again.

    1. Pleasure Efrat and good luck….hope you feel better 🙂

  5. Thank you so much for this article! I have truly been inspired by your wise words!!

    1. Thank you – really glad you enjoyed it 🙂

  6. A very good an practical article. The lesson should have a similar construction.

    1. Thanks so much Mira, glad you liked it – yes, lessons should be constructed in a similar way with lots of attention on technical work…..

  7. Great Post! Conscious practice with complete focus even for short time spans is preferable to ‘entertaining oneself’ on the piano, I’d love to share this with my students to reinforce what I have been telling them. Thanks for sharing!

    1. Thanks so much for your lovely comments…..really glad you found it all useful 🙂

      1. My pleasure, looking forward to more posts!

  8. Karen says:

    Hello, I love this painting and was wondering if you would be able to provide details as I would love to see if I can get the print for my piano room.

    Regards Karen swan

    Sent from my iPad


    1. Hi Karen,
      Glad you liked the painting. I got it from another blog site and I can’t seem to find any link to the painter, however, is you type ‘girl practising the piano’ into google and then click on ‘images’ you will see how I found it and may be able to discover where it originates. Sorry not to be more helpful,

  9. RuthL says:

    I’m a 70+ grandmother who has returned to playing the piano after a 40 year break. Your tips are a strong reminder that piano playing is like gymnastics _ one must be aware of the physical inputs as well as the musical outputs. Thank you so very much Melanie, finding your blog is very timely for me!

    1. Hi Ruth, Thanks so much for your kind comments. I’m so glad you find the blog useful and delighted you have returned to your piano playing. I hope you find it fun and keep making good progress….

  10. Max Bogner says:

    What about how to structure practice for beginners? I’m not a player who’s been away for a while, so this isn’t useful.

    What I really need is someone to tell me how I should be structuring my daily practice, as I’m starting out.


    1. Hi Max. That’s a good point. I will write a post about it. Thank you for the suggestion…

  11. Claudine Reischl says:

    Thank you very much for these articles, they are super helpful!

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